Mitochondria are the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells, where they can make up as much as 25% of the cell volume. Their structure and status varies greatly depending on cell type, cell-cycle stage or the intracellular metabolic state and is rapidly becoming a hallmark of many degenerative diseases, especially in the nervous system. While the key output of mitochondria is energy/ATP production through sugar metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and lipid oxidation, detection of the initial stages of apoptosis - programmed cell death - and other pre-lethal states is often monitored by early changes in mitochondrial membrane polarization or structure.
Detects mitochondrial membrane depolarization using the potentiometric fluorescent dye tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester(TMRE) which emits a red fluorescence (em. 574 nm) in negatively charged, polarized mitochondria. Learn More
Detects mitochondrial membrane depolarization using the fluorescent dye TMRM which accumulates within negatively charged mitochondrial organelles, exhibiting a red-orange fluorescence (em. 573 nm) that increases dramatically when excited at 548 nm. Learn More
Positively charged lipophilic fluorophore with red-orange fluorescence (EX 549; EM 575 nm) that rapidly accumulates in the mitochondria due to the relative negative charge of active mitochondria with respect to the cytosol. Learn More
Utilizes the live cell carbocyanine dye JC-1 which indicates changes in ΔΨm, the electrochemical gradient across the mitochondrial membranes by reversibly changing its emission from green in non-polar mitochondria to orange/red J aggregates in hyperpolarized mitochondria. Learn More