Reactive oxygen species are a natural byproduct of the normal metabolism of oxygen and have important roles in cell signaling. They have also been implicated in abnormal cellular activity to a variety of inflammatory responses including cardiovascular diseases, immune responses and hearing impairment. Oxidases are also used in a wide variety of bioassays. The most useful known oxidase is horseradish peroxidase (HRP), which has been coupled with sensitive fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates to quantitate intracellular hydrogen peroxide production as well as a diverse assortment of analytes including glucose, galactose, cholesterol, and uric acid. Fluorogenic peroxidase substrates are converted to highly fluorescent products in the presence of the enzyme and hydrogen peroxide but can be relatively unstable for use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). By forming the diacetate derivates, (see M0807) intracellular applications are more efficient, whereupon the acetates are cleaved by endogenous esterases, releasing the intact substrate.
Reduced derivative of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein is a cell permeable reagent for use in detection of peroxidase activity (oxidative metabolism, intracellular regulation of reactive oxygen species or oxidative burst) inside living cells. Learn More
High copy number eukaryotic vector, pCMVβ contains the full-length lacZβ-galactosidase gene under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate early gene (CMV IE) promoter. Very useful for transfection of mammalian cells in culture and for use in other species where constitutive expression is desired. Learn More
High copy number eukaryotic vector, pCMVβ expresses the full-length codon-optimized β-galactosidase gene (lacZco) under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate early gene (CMV IE) promoter. Learn More
This reduced form of ethidine shows a blue fluorescence (absorption/emission: 355/420nm) in cell cytoplasm until oxidization to form ethidium which becomes red fluorescent (absorption/emission: 518/605 nm) upon DNA intercalation. Learn More