Fluorescein di-β-D-galactopyranoside (FDG)

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Ultra-sensitive substrate for lacZ β-galactosidase detection in vivo and in vitro; useful in one of the most common transfection optimization assays in molecular biology.
Fluorescein-di-β-D-galactopyranoside (FDG) is a widely used substrate for detection of E. coli lacZ β-galactosidase detection by flow cytometry in both mammalian and gram-negative bacteria, as it enters viable cells and gives a fluorescence emission proportional to the enzymatic activity. Please see the references below for numerous application of this very popular substrate. Marker Gene provides FDG as a high-purity, molecular biology grade with background fluorescence levels below 20 ppm. It is also available already dissolved in solution in our detection kits such as product M0259.
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Publications Using This Product
  • Burkin, D, Wuebbles, R. (2017) "Methods of Treating Muscular Dystrophy.' US Patent Appl. 20170340606.
  • Kim SH, Fujii T (2016) "Efficient analysis of a small number of cancer cells at the single-cell level using electroactive double-well array" Lab on a Chip. doi:10.1039/C6LC00241B.
  • Burkin D, Wuebbles R (2016) "METHODS OF TREATING MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY" US Patent 20160030390
  • Kreamer NN, Phillips R, Newman DK, Boedicker JQ (2015) "Predicting the impact of promoter variability on regulatory outputs" Scientific Reports 5:18238.
  • Edwards N, Farookhi R, Clarke HJ. (2015) "Identification of a β-galactosidase transgene that provides a live-cell marker of transcriptional activity in growing oocytes and embryos." Mol Hum Reprod. 21(7):583-93.
  • English JG, Shellhammer JP, Malahe M, McCarter PC, Elston TC, Dohlman HG. (2015) "MAPK feedback encodes a switch and timer for tunable stress adaptation in yeast." Sci Signal. 8(359):ra5.
  • Errede B, Vered L, Ford E, Pena MI, Elston TC. (2015) "Pheromone-induced morphogenesis and gradient tracking are dependent on the MAPK Fus3 binding to Gα." Mol Biol Cell. 26(18):3343-58.
  • Hecker L, Logsdon NJ, Kurundkar D, Kurundkar A, Bernard K, Hock T, Meldrum E, Sanders YY, Thannickal VJ. (2014) "Reversal of persistent fibrosis in aging by targeting Nox4-Nrf2 redox imbalance." Sci Transl Med.6(231):231ra47
  • Lee K, Boyd KL, Parekh DV, Kehl-Fie TE, Baldwin HS, Brakebusch C, Skaar EP, Boothby M, Zent R. (2013) "Cdc42 promotes host defenses against fatal infection." Infect Immun. 81(8):2714-23.
  • Xiong S, Salazar G, Patrushev N, Ma M, Forouzandeh F, Hilenski L, Alexander RW. (2013) "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α is a central negative regulator of vascular senescence. " Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 33(5):988-98.
  • Lien EC, Nagiec MJ, Dohlman HG. (2013)"Proper protein glycosylation promotes mitogen-activated protein kinase signal fidelity." Biochemistry. 52(1):115-24.
  • Amidi M, van Helden MJ, Tabataei NR, de Goede AL, Schouten M, de Bot V, Lanzi A, Gruters RA, Rimmelzwaan GF, Sijts AJ, Mastrobattista E.(2012) "Induction of humoral and cellular immune responses by antigen-expressing immunostimulatory liposomes." J Control Release. 164(3):323-30.
  • Hao N, Yildirim N, Nagiec MJ, Parnell SC, Errede B, Dohlman HG, Elston TC. (2012) "Combined computational and experimental analysis reveals mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated feedback phosphorylation as a mechanism for signaling specificity." Mol Biol Cell. 23(19):3899-910.
  • Abbasi CS, Wang D, El-Rass S, Li J, Backx P, Cox B, Wen X, Gramolini A (2012) "375 ERp44 Expression During Zebrafish and Mouse Embryogenesis and Heart Development" Canadian Journal of Cardiology, Volume 28, Issue 5, S238 - S239
  • Yeh JR, Zhang X, Nagano MC. (2012) "Indirect effects of Wnt3a/β-catenin signalling support mouse spermatogonial stem cells in vitro." PLoS One. 7(6):e40002.
  • Iino R, Nishino K, Noji H, Yamaguchi A, Matsumoto Y. (2012) "A microfluidic device for simple and rapid evaluation of multidrug efflux pump inhibitors." Front Microbio 3:40. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2012.00040
  • Iino R, Hayama K, Amezawa H, Sakakihara S, Kim SH, Matsumono Y, Nishino K, Yamaguchi A, Noji H. (2012) "A single-cell drug efflux assay in bacteria by using a directly accessible femtoliter droplet array." Lab Chip. 12(20):3923-9
  • Amidi M, de Raad M, Crommelin DJ, Hennink WE, Mastrobattista E.(2011) "Antigen-expressing immunostimulatory liposomes as a genetically programmable synthetic vaccine." Syst Synth Biol. 5(1-2):21-31.
  • Matsumoto Y, Hayama K, Sakakihara S, Nishino K, Noji H, Iino R, Yamaguchi A. (2011) "Evaluation of multidrug efflux pump inhibitors by a new method using microfluidic channels." PLoS One. 6(4):e18547.
  • Passa O, Tsalavos S, Belyaev NN, Petryk A, Potocnik AJ, Graf D.(2011) "Compartmentalization of bone morphogenetic proteins and their antagonists in lymphoid progenitors and supporting microenvironments and functional implications." Immunology. 134(3):349-59.
  • Torres MP, Clement ST, Cappell SD, Dohlman HG.(2011) "Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation and ubiquitination of a G protein alpha subunit." J Biol Chem. 286(23):20208-16.
  • Yeh JR, Zhang X, Nagano MC. (2011) “Wnt5a is a cell-extrinsic factor that supports self renewal of mouse spermatogonial stem cells.” J Cell Sci 124: 2357-2366.
  • Amidi M, de Raad M, de Graauw H, van Ditmarsch D, Hennink WE, Crommelin DJ, Mastrobattista E.(2010) "Optimization and quantification of protein synthesis inside liposomes." J Liposome Res. 20(1):73-83.
  • Kikuchi I, Nakayama Y, Morinaga T, Fukumoto Y, Yamaguchi N. (2010) "A decrease in cyclin B1 levels leads to polyploidization in DNA damage-induced senescence." Cell Biol Int. 34(6):645-53.
  • Trowbridge JJ, Guezguez B, Moon RT, Bhatia M. (2010) "Wnt3a activates dormant c-Kit(-) bone marrow-derived cells with short-term multilineage hematopoietic reconstitution capacity." Stem Cells 28: 1379–1389. doi: 10.1002/stem.457
  • Holtze C, Rowat AC, Agresti JJ, Hutchison JB, Angilè FE, Schmitz CH, Köster S, Duan H, Humphry KJ, Scanga RA, Johnson JS, Pisignano D, Weitz DA. (2008) "Biocompatible surfactants for water-in-fluorocarbon emulsions." Lab Chip. 8(10):1632-9
  • Trowbridge JJ, Scott MP, Bhatia M (2006) "Hedgehog modulates cell cycle regulators in stem cells to control hematopoietic regeneration." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 103(38):14134-9.
  • Wozei E, Hermanowicz SW, Holman H-YN. (2006) "Developing a biosensor for estrogens in water samples: Study of the real-time response of live cells of the estrogen-sensitive yeast strain RMY/ER-ERE using fuorescence microscopy." Biosens Bioelectron 21:1654-1658.
  • Trowbridge JJ, Xenocostas A, Moon RT, Bhatia M. (2006) "Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is an in vivo regulator of hematopoietic stem cell repopulation." Nature Medicine 12: 89-98.
  • Tinsley RB, Faijerson J, Eriksson PS. (2006) "Efficient non-viral transfection of adult neural stem/progenitor cells, without affecting viability, proliferation or differentiation." J Gene Med. 8(1):72-81.
  • Kerrison JB, Duh EJ, Yu Y, Otteson DC, Zack DJ. (2005) "A system for inducible gene expression in retinal ganglion cells." Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:2932-2939.
  • Oliver TG, Read TA, Kessler JD, Mehmeti A, Wells JF, Huynh TT, Lin SM, Wechsler-Reya RJ. (2005) "Loss of patched and disruption of granule cell development in a pre-neoplastic stage of medulloblastoma." Development. 132(10):2425-39
  • Imamura D, Kobayashi K, Sekiguchi J, Ogasawara N, Takeuchi M, Sato T. (2004) "spoIVH (ykvV), a requisite cortex formation gene, is expressed in both sporulating compartments of Bacillus subtilis." J Bacteriol. 186(16):5450-9.
  • Wu YL, Hooks SB, Harden TK, Dohlman HG. (2004) "Dominant-negative inhibition of pheromone receptor signaling by a single point mutation in the G protein alpha subunit." J Biol Chem.279(34):35287-97.
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Product Data
Product ID M0250
CAS Number 17817-20-8
Unit Size 5mg
Availability In Stock
Alternative Names Fluorescein di-galactoside; FDG
Absorption 300nm
Detection Method Fluorescence
Molecular Formula C₃₂H₃₂O₁₅
Molecular Weight 656.6
Soluble In DMSO, DMF, EtOH, H₂O
Storage Conditions -20C, Desiccated
Notes Emission (EX: 488nm/EM: 512nm) of the fluorescein fluorophore released upon beta-Galactosidase enzyme activity.

Molecular Biology grade: <20 ppm background fluorescence QC specification.
Fisher Scientific 50-996-088
VWR International 101176-218
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  • Guo W, Wu H. (2008) "Detection of lacZexpression by FACS-Gal analysis" Nature Protocols DOI: 10.1038/nprot.2008.163 https://www.natureprotocols.com/2008/08/06/detection_of_lacz_expression_b.php.
  • Dreier J, Breitmaier EB, Gocke E, Apfel CM, Page MGP. (2002) "Direct influence of S9 liver homogenate on fluorescence signals: impact on practical applications in a bacterial genotoxicity assay." Mutation Research 513(1-2): 169-182.
  • Burke BJ, Regnier FE. (2001) "Electrophoretically mediated microanalysis of β-galactosidase on microchips." Electrophoresis 22(17): 3744-3751.
  • Nirenberg S. (2000) "Photoablation of cells expressing β-galactosidase." Methods Mol Biol 135: 475-80.
  • Nelis H, Van Poucke S. (2000) "Enzymatic detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli within 4 hours." Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 123(1-4): 43-52.
  • Additional References
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